Each Federal Home Loan Bank operates a Community Investment Program (CIP) that offers below-market-rate loans to members for long-term financing for housing and economic development that benefits low- and moderate-income families and neighborhoods. The program is designed to be a catalyst for economic development because it supports projects that create and preserve jobs and help build infrastructure to support growth. Lenders have used CIP to fund owner-occupied and rental housing, construct roads, bridges, retail stores, sewage treatment plants and provide small business loans. The program is especially appreciated in rural areas where resources are limited. Since 1990, CIP has lent over $68 billion for a variety of projects, resulting in 772,000 housing units and an estimated 243,000 jobs. Several of the Banks operate other voluntary programs for affordable housing, small business lending, foreclosure prevention and financial literacy.